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Работа в Польше: мнения заробитчан

Work in Poland: opinions of migrant workers

Date posted: 27.03.2018 Print Full version

 • According to the survey conducted by the Sociological Group "Rating" among the adult residents of Lviv, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ternopil, and Lutsk who have worked in Poland over the last five years, more than a half of those who have experienced working abroad in the neighboring country have traveled to work there not more than three times (25% - not more than once, 34% - two to three times). 13% stated that they have traveled to work in Poland three to five times, 18% - more than five times, and 7% - work almost all the time. A somewhat greater experience of such stays has been recorded among men, older respondents (aged 51 and over), and those with an average level of education. 

More than a half of the respondents stated the longest term they had stayed in Poland for work was one to three months (9% - less than one month, 49% - one to three months). A quarter of the polled noted that the longest term was three to six months, 14% - six months to a year, 3% - more than a year. The highest number of those who have stayed in Poland for the longest time has been recorded among older people and those who had already worked there more than three times.
 
77% of the polled said that they had performed mostly physical work in Poland, 16% - had worked in the service sphere, 3% - had performed activity related to intellectual, and only 1% - had experienced work on the managerial positions. Almost the vast majority of males (89%) have done physical work, only 6% of them have worked in the sphere of services. Among females, 63% have been engaged in physical work, 28% have worked in the service sphere. The higher the education level, the more often the respondents have applied for work in the service sphere or have been engaged in intellectual work.
 
34% have been engaged in agricultural work in Poland, 32% - in construction or repair work, 8% - housekeeping, 7% - restaurant business, 5% - hotels, 4% - care of the elderly and disabled people, 3% - other activities. Less than 3% of the respondents have worked in the service sphere. Women and elderly people have been involved in agricultural work more often; men, youth, and middle-aged people – in construction an repair work. Unlike men, women have been also more involved in housekeeping and restaurant business, taking care of elderly and disabled people, babysitting, and service sphere. The higher the education level, the more often the migrant workers have found work not related to agriculture or construction.
 
Over 80% have searched for work with the help of relatives and friends: 66% through relatives in Ukraine, 21% - in Poland. Only 10% have found employment through Ukrainian employment agencies and 3% - through Polish; 6% - through advertisements in the Ukrainian media, 2% - Polish media; 5% - through social networks (Facebook, LinkedIn, etc.). Less than 1% of the polled used the services of the State Employment Services in Ukraine and Poland.
 
The main channel of job search for all the categories of respondents is, first of all, close people in Ukraine. At the same time, younger respondents were more likely to use Ukrainian employment agencies, advertisements in national media, and social networks.
 
A half of the respondents (53%) named geographical proximity as the main reason for choosing Poland (and not another country) as a place of work. For 44% the reason was higher salaries, 34% - low language barrier, and 30% - family members or acquaintances already working or living in Poland. 21% said that their choice of Poland has been made due to more job offers in this country as compared to other countries. A stable political and economic situation in Poland, cultural and historical affinity, and inability to travel to a European country other than Poland were motivating for 6 to 7% of the respondents, learning opportunities or better perspectives for personal development in Poland - for 3%. Higher salaries and more job offers on the Polish labor market were more often motivative for young and middle-aged people. These were also somewhat more important for men. On the other hand, women more often than men used to choose Poland because of the low language barrier and relatives/friends already working or living there.
 
39% of the polled believe that the main difficulty of the work in Poland is a long-term separation with family. 32% complain about too many hours of work per day, 28% - severe working conditions, 24% - lack of social protection for Ukrainian migrant workers, 14% - hostile attitude towards the Ukrainians from the Poles, 13% - administrative formalities during paperwork processing, 12% - language barrier, 9% - lack of days off, 8% - poor living conditions, 4% - conflicts with manager/employer, 3% - conflicts with colleagues. Middle-aged and elderly people are more likely to complain about long-term separation with their families, young people - about many hours of work per day. The family factor is also more important for women and those who have already traveled to Poland more than three times. The language barrier problem was somewhat less often noted by the elderly and those who had traveled to work in Poland for many times.
 
Two-thirds have never sent money to a family in Ukraine while staying at work in Poland. Other 15% refused to answer this question. 6% indicated that they had sent up to 500 zloty per month to their families, 8% - 500-1,000 zloty, 11% - more than 1,000 zloty. The more times the respondents have been to Poland for work, the larger amounts they have sent to their families in Ukraine.
 
45% of the polled indicated that their average monthly cost of living in Poland had been 200 to 500 zloty, 22% - up to 200 zloty, 19% - more than 500 zloty. 15% could not answer this question.
 
Most often, among the additional free conditions not related to the payment of salaries offered by the employers, the interviewed have mentioned accommodation in the apartment (58%). 35% indicated free food, 34% - transportation to the workplace, 28% - access to the Internet, 13% - assistance in official registration paperwork, 12% - mobile communications. 7% have received social benefits (insurance, relocation assistance, etc.), 5% - educational services (studying Polish or professional training). 15% indicated that they have been offered nothing but salaries.
 
Among the services most used while working in Poland, the respondents mentioned mobile communications (72%). 50% used the Internet, 32% - television. Money transfer services, search and rental of housing, banks have been used by 13% of the polled each, services of insurance - 9%, private medical care – 7%. Other services, such as car service, freight transport, legal services, and car rental have been used by not more than 2% of the Ukrainian migrant workers. Those who have been to Poland more than three times have used mobile communications, money transfers, banks, search and rental of housing, and insurance more often than others.
 
In general, a half of the respondents (52%) positively assess Polish employers (‘excellent’ or ‘good’ rates), 38% give them average rates, only 8% - poor rates (‘bad’ or ‘terrible’). Women, those with higher income, and those who have been at work more times are more likely to evaluate Polish employers better.
 
Similar trends, in general, have been recorded also regarding the assessment of colleagues of those respondents who have worked in Poland: more than a half (58%) assessed them positively (‘excellent’ or ‘good’ rates), 36% - average, 4% - ‘bad’ or ‘terrible’. Those with higher income are more likely to evaluate their colleagues better. 
 
Only 4% stated that they were planning to buy or already own real estate in Poland (mostly those who have been here at work more than three times). The vast majority do not have such plans (88% said they did not plan, 8% - did not answer). A similar trend regarding the establishment of their own company / business in Poland in the future: only 3% mentioned such plans, 89% did not have such intentions, 9% could not answer.
 
63% said they planned to go to work in Poland in the nearest future, 19% - did not have such intentions, the same number - could not answer. The highest number of those who plan to return to work in Poland in the nearest future have been observed among those who had already been there more than three times.
 
74% stated they did not plan to move to Poland for permanent residence in the next few years, 11% - had such plans. Likewise, the highest number of them have been observed among those who had already been in Poland many times.
 
Among the countries most wanted from the perspective of work, 30% of the migrant workers have chosen Poland, 27% - Germany, 22% - the United States of America, 20% - Scandinavian countries (Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark), 18% - Czech Republic, 13% - Great Britain, 12% - Canada, 7% each - the Netherlands and Belgium. Other countries have been chosen by not more than 6% of the respondents. Poland has been most often chosen by older respondents, men, and those with average education level. The United States, Canada, Great Britain, and Scandinavian countries were the most desirable for those with higher education.
 
Two-thirds of the polled believe that introduction of a visa-free regime with the European Union has facilitated the opportunities of Ukrainians to find work and employment abroad. Only 7% have the opposite opinion. A quarter failed to answer this question. A somewhat higher number of positive rates of the employment opportunities due to the visa-free regime introduction has been recorded among women, those with higher education. and those who have been in Poland not more than once.
 
More detailed report on the attitudes of Ukrainian employers in Poland and the attitude of Polish employers to our employees can be found on the website of the recruitment company "Personnel Service" under the link personnelservice.pl/en/press-office/reports
 
Target audience: residents of Lviv, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ternopil, and Lutsk aged 18 and older who have worked in Poland over the last five years. Total sample: 400 respondents. Personal formalized interview (face-to-face). The margin of error does not exceed 4.9%. Period of the survey: 9-26 February 2018. The survey is commissioned by the recruitment company "Personnel Service" (Poland).

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