According to the research, conducted in October 2010, an average Ukrainian family spends about 400 UAH per month on clothes and shoes, or approximately one sixth of its budget. In particular, every sixth family spends 100 UAH per month, almost every fourth - from 100 to 300 UAH, almost every fifth - from 300 to 500 UAH, etc.
For the period equivalent to an average calendar year, 16% of respondents purchase clothing and footwear every month, 41% - once or twice a season, 22% - once or twice a year, 13% - less than once a year.
Residents of the West and the North (especially Kyiv) are the most active in buying clothes; residents of the East and Donbas are less active.
The frequency of buying clothes and shoes is directly proportional to the age of respondents (the younger they are, the more often they buy; one third of respondents aged over 60 years buy clothes less than once per year), to the type of residence (consumers in cities are more active), to the gender (women are more active), to the income level (respondents with an income of 3000 UAH and more buy clothes almost twice as often as respondents with an income of under 1000 UAH), to the level of employment (respondents who work buy clothes 1,5 times as often as those who do not work, though there are active buyers in this category as well - students and housewives), to the level of education (the higher is the educational level of the respondent, the more often he buys clothes and shoes). Unmarried respondents are more active in buying clothes than respondents who are married, while married respondents are more active than divorced.
The absolute majority of Ukrainians buy clothes and shoes on markets (84%) and this situation is typical for all regions without exception. One third of respondents make purchases in small stores, 14% - in department stores and supermarkets, 5% - in "brand" clothes shops, 1% - on the Internet, 1% - abroad.
27% of respondents usually buy Ukrainian clothes and shoes, 22% - Turkish, 20% - Polish, 19% - Chinese, 16% - Western European, 11% - Russian, 8% - Byelorussian, 5% - clothes and shoes produced in other countries. However, 42% of respondents do not pay attention to the manufacturer when they buy. This response is the most popular in Donbas, in the East and in the South of Ukraine.
Residents of the West are more demanding to purchases. Clothing and footwear from Poland and from Western Europe in general are a lot more popular here than in other regions.
The choosiest are residents of the North, especially Kyiv. The wide choice of goods allows them to shop for all manufacturers. Interestingly, the rate of using Ukrainian clothing is the highest here (48%!). It is not surprising because nearly one-third of respondents mentioned that among reasons they did not use domestic products, was a small number or absence of places selling them. Yet, the key obstacle to purchasing Ukrainian clothes and shoes is the discrepancy between price and quality (45%) and low quality of products (37%), other 31% named small assortment and 14% mentioned that Ukrainian products are not in line with fashion trends.
Interestingly, one half of respondents, who buy domestic products, mention that correspondence between price and quality is the main reason of their choice. However, in terms of absolute values there are not many of such people – 27% buy Ukrainian clothes, and a half of them constitute only 14%. One third buys Ukrainian products to support domestic manufacturers, 27% value good quality, 16% value good range of products and only 4% of those who buy Ukrainian clothes believe in their correspondence to fashion. Thus, consumers of Ukrainian products and not very demanding. The last category (and it is growing) is looking for an alternative, but limited incomes constrain this search considerably.
“Second hand” clothes from Europe have become one of real alternatives for such people.
Two-thirds of Ukrainian respondents have a positive attitude towards the opportunity to purchase used clothing or shoes from Europe (the so-called "second hand") in Ukraine and only 18% have a negative attitude. The most positive attitude is in the West (77%), in the North (72%) and in the Center of Ukraine (66%), less positive attitude (although the vast majority answered in the "plus" here as well) is in the South (56%) and in Donbas (53%).
Women are significantly more positive about "second hand" than men.
57% of respondents aged over 18 have bought "second hand" goods, 18% of them used to do it before and 39% - bought and still buy them. However, 43% of Ukrainians have never bought "second hand".
The majority of "second hand" users is in the West (48% still buy), in the East (41%) and in Donbas (41%). The latter region just comes to this, because only 10% bought these products before.
"Second hand" is more popular in the cities than in villages. Its users are mostly women, middle-aged people (30-39 years) and people with specialized secondary or higher education. According to marital status - divorced and married people. It is worth noting that if we take clothing and footwear in general, married people are more active in terms of purchase than divorced, and using "second hand" it is vice versa.
More than a half of housewives or women, who are on maternity leave, buy "second hand" goods actively – a half of them buys these products several times a month.
One of the most important criteria of identification of the consumer of used clothing is the level of income, when on one hand there is a need to dress nicely with limited resources, on the other hand there is a need to dress somehow with minimal resources. The majority of "second hand" users is among respondents with an income less than 1000 UAH per month (45%). 39% - among respondents with an income of 1000-2000 UAH per month.
The level of use of the specified category of goods is directly proportional to the total family expenditures on clothing and shoes. Almost a half of people who spend less than 100 UAH or 100 to 300 UAH of the family budget per month on clothing and footwear are users of "second hand". Among people with monthly expenditures at the level of 300-500 UAH – only 38% are "second hand" users.
According to these figures, the fact that 85% of respondents think the "second hand" ban will mostly affect poor citizens of Ukraine, seems quite logical.
It is also worth noting that not only poor people use "second hand". Thus, a third of respondents with incomes of 2000 to 3000 UAH and more than 3000 UAH per month are also users of "second hand", as well as a third of those who spend 500-1000 UAH per month on clothing and footwear.
A certain evolution of consumer quality can be noticed. For respondents who used second-hand clothing before (ceased to do so now) the main reason was lack of money to buy new clothes (38%); while for present-day users "second hand" is, first of all, an opportunity to buy quality things for reasonable prices (64%). Nowadays, 45% goes to the "second hand" because of lack of money, 27% - see an opportunity to find new clothes among used things, 23% - buy clothes of fashionable "brands" on the cheap, 14% - buy affordable children's clothing. At that, 22% of respondents used to buy "second hand" for professional use, nowadays only 13% buy "second hand" for this purpose.
54% would continue to buy "second hand" goods even if they had enough money to buy new clothes. One third would refuse buying such goods.
Usually people who have never purchased "second hand" goods (43% of all respondents) have their arguments. Thus, the main among them is that these clothes are dangerous for health (formaldehyde processed) - 30% of respondents. Other 26% do not buy "second hand" because they have enough money to buy new things, 24% mention that it humiliates their dignity, 20% are ashamed of buying used clothing and 9% are not satisfied with conditions where goods are sold.
Instead, "second hand" users are mostly satisfied with conditions where goods are sold (68%). 22% are dissatisfied. The majority of consumers who are satisfied with conditions are in the West and in the North. The remaining regions are considerably less satisfied.
At present, 62% of citizens do not support the idea to ban the import of "second hand" goods into Ukraine (91%! of those are among users, while 30% are among those who have never used “second hand”). The idea is supported by 18%. 17% do not care what happens to "second hand", other 5% - have not decided.
The ban is the least supported in Donbas and in the West of Ukraine.
In case "second hand" trade discontinues, 67% of users (the level of income - under 1000 UAH and between 1000 and 2000 UAH) intend to economize and buy fewer clothes and shoes. 9% (the level of income - 2000 UAH) will increase family budget expenses on clothing and shoes to buy as many clothes as before.
43% of users see any cheap clothes (regardless of manufacturing country) as an alternative to "second hand", 25% - domestic cheap clothes, 16% - any quality clothes, even if they are more expensive, 16% - cheap clothes from Belarus and Russia, 6% - cheap clothes from China. 3% intend to continue buying "brand" clothes.
42% of respondents believe that domestic clothing and footwear manufacturers will benefit from the prohibition of "second hand", 39% - do not think so, and 20% - have not decided.
However, 67% of respondents think that the ban will benefit importers of cheap clothes, 18% - do not think so, and 19% - have not decided.
As an answer to the question "Who benefits from the ban more?", 11% of respondents said that it would be domestic light industry, 35% - importers, 19% - both sides would benefit equally, 17% - neither of them would benefit, and 18% - could not answer.
However, the absolute majority (94%) of respondents believe that the government should support the development of domestic clothing and shoes manufacturing. Among measures that can be most effective to support domestic manufacturers of clothing and footwear, 36% mentioned an increase in tax benefits for light industry, 21% - intensification of struggle against contraband at the customs, 19% - ban on importing cheap clothing from China and 4% - ban on importing "second hand".
53% of respondents admit that new clothes may be imported into Ukraine under the mask of "second hand", 18% - do not think so, 29% - could not answer the question. Among respondents who admit contraband facts 5% believe that importers are guiltier in this, 34% suspect customs officers and 54% - believe that both importers and customs officers are equally guilty. 59% of respondents believe that the state can solve the problem of contraband of new clothing without banning "second hand" import. 19% of respondents are not sure in this. 22% - could not answer the question.
The target audience of the research: the population of Ukraine aged from 18 and older. Optional quantity: 2000 respondents. The methods of investigation: personal formalized interview according to the questionnaire (face to face). Measure of inaccuracy for the values close to 50% is less than 3%, for the values close to 30% – less than 2,6%, for the values close to 10% – less than 1,8. The period of completion: 4-11 of October 2010
The oblast’ distribution:
West: Volyns’ka, Transcarpathia, Ivano–Frankivs’ka, L’vivs’ka, Rivnens’ka, Ternopil’s’ka, Chernivets’ka.
Centre: Vinnyts’ka, Kirovograds’ka, Poltavs’ka, Khmel’nyts’ka, Cherkas’ka.
North: Kyiv, Kyivs’ka, Zhytomyrs’ka, Sums’ka, Chernihivs’ka.
South: AR Crimea, Odes’ka, Khersons’ka, Mykolaivs’ka, Sevastopol
East: Dnipropetrovs’ka, Zaporiz’ka, Kharkivs’ka.
Donbass: Donets’ka, Luhans’ka.